hydroxylapatite HA granulate
Bioceramic testing
Tri Calcium Phosphate
Calcium phosphates for orthopedic

CaP Materials

Calcium phosphate materials have been widely used as implant materials since significant research in the early 1970’s demonstrated the biocompatibility and utility of these materials as implants. Within this class of calcium phosphates known as orthophosphates, there exists a tremendous diversity of chemical and structural variations. Extensive toxicity studies on this class of bioceramics has demonstrated a high degree of biocompatibility, minimal if any inflammatory response or foreign body response and no evidence of local or systemic toxicity. This is because the calcium and phosphate ions are the most common ions in the body and these compounds allow direct bonding of soft tissue or bone cells. The most commonly used bioceramics are hydroxylapatite, β- tricalcium phosphate and mixtures of hydroxylapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate (usually referred to as biphasic HA/TCP). All of these materials can be made in a variety of forms, densities or porosities and finished to shapes or physical characteristics required.

Calcium Hydroxylapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2]

CaHA is generally used in applications where a more durable form of material is required. Our HA meets the requirements of ASTM F1185 and ISO 13779. HA is the natural mineral component of hard tissue comprising 60 to 70 % of bone and > 95 % of tooth enamel. Stoichiometric hydroxylapatite has a Ca/P ratio of 1.67.

β Tricalcium Phosphate [Ca3(PO4)6]

β TCP has a higher solubility than HA and is generally selected for applications where dissolution of the implant is desired. Our β TCP meets the requirements of ASTM F1088. Stoichiometric tricalcium phosphate has Ca/P ratio of 1.5.

Biphasic Calcium Phosphate

Biphasic CaP is a HA/β TCP combination. While there are many different variations, the most commonly used forms are 60% HA/40% β TCP and 85% HA/15% β TCP. By varying the composition ratio, the physical characteristics of the bioceramic may be controlled. Our Biphasic CaPs meet the requirements of the combined ASTM F1185 and ISO 13779 and the STM F1088. Biphasic CaPs have Ca/P ratios of 1.5 to 1.67.


Fluorapatite is very similar to hydroxylapatite but some of the hydroxyl groups that define the HA are replace with fluorine ions. Fluorapatite is the least soluble form of these bioceramics.

Custom CaP Formulations

Custom CaP Formulations include such materials as calcium pyrophosphates and α tricalcium phosphate. The calcium pyrophosphates have a Ca/P ratios less than tricalcium phosphate. α -tricalcium phosphate is the high temperature form of β-tricalcium phosphate.

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